Agricultural Site


Precipitation

1. Gauges

  • WMO reference at ground level for liquid precipitation. (automatic) (not in database)
  • Valdai Double Fence with Pluvio2 for solid precipitation (automatic) (not in database)
  • Two Pluvio2, resolution: 0.01 mm, 0.01 mm/hour, capacity 1500 mm, collection area 200 cm2, (automatic) (not in database)
  • Pluvio 2 (with alter wind shield), resolution: 0.01 mm, 0.01 mm/hour, capacity 1500 mm, collection area 200 cm2, (automatic) (not in database)
  • Pluvio 2, resolution: 0.01 mm, 0.01 mm/hour, capacity 1500 mm, collection area 200 cm2, (automatic) (not in database)
  • Rimco 7499 (tipping bucket), data resolution: 0.2 mm/tip, collection area 324 cm2, (automatic) (In database)
  • Hellmann, data resolution 0.1 mm, collection area 200 cm2, (manual). (not in database)


2. Weather type / Drop size distribution(not in database)

  • Distrometer (Parsivel), (automatic) drop size distribution between 0.2-25 mm, wave length 650 nm
  • Distrometer (Thies LMP), (automatic) drop size distribution between 0.16-8mm, wave length 785 nm


Climatic Variables (in database)

1. Solar radiation

  • NR01 – net-radiometer. Located on the mast. In- and outgoing long- and shortwave radiation (automatic, 10. min average)
  • PPFD sensors (photosynthetic photon flux density) (automatic, 10 min. average)


2. Windspeed

  • Anemometers (Approx. 6 instruments located around the site in an elevation of 1.5 m)
  • Gill ultrasonic anemometers (in 6 m and 12 m elevation) (automatic,10 Hz, 30 min. average)


3. Wind direction

  • Gill ultrasonic anemometers (in 6 m and 12 m elevation) (10 Hz, 30 min. average)


4. Air temperature and relative humidity

  • Rotronic HS2
  • HMP 45 C (located approx. halfway up the mast) (automatic, 10 min. average)


5. Soil temperature

  • Sensors placed in the depths of 5cm, 10cm, and 20cm. (automatic, 10 min. average)


6. Soil heat flux

  • Hukseflux plates at 5 cm depth. (automatic, 10 min. average)


Fluxes (in database)

1. Water vapour and CO2

  • Li-Cor LI-7500 (open path) CO2 / H2O (sensor placed on the mast in an elevation of 6 m) (automatic, 10 Hz, 30 min. average)
  • Li-Cor LI-7000 (closed path) tube inlet placed at 6 m. (automatic, 10 Hz, 30 min. average)
  • LiCor LI-7500 (open path) CO2 / H2O (sensor placed on the mast in an elevation of 12 m) (automatic, 10 Hz, 30 min. average)

2. N2O-flux

  • Los Gatos Research N2O/CO-23d Analyzer. (Tube inlet placed on the mast in an elevation of 6 m) (automatic, 10 Hz, 30 min. average). Measurements not in database yet. Presently not installed.
  • Vacuum pump. Presently not installed.


Regional Decagon sensors (in the database)
“Wireless” soil moisture network. 32 loggers (EM50) are in place in the surrounding area. Logger-data might have to be collected manually and not wirelessly. A “line of sight” is required for wireless transmission.

Local Decagon sensors (in the database)

  • 10 Decagon sensors (5TE) to be installed at 5 cm depth.
  • 20 Decagon sensors (5TE) to be installed at depth.
  • Decagon 5TE sensors: 3 at 10 cm depth, 3 at 20 cm depth, 3 at 30 cm depth, 3 at 40 cm depth, 3 at 50 cm depth, 2 at 75 cm depth, 4 at 1 m depth, 4 at 2 m depth, 4 at 3 m depth, 4 at 4 m depth.


TDR-probes (not in the database)

  • TDR probes: 4 Standard (STD) 50 cm long electrode probes from 0-50 cm, 4 STD probes from 75 to 125 cm, 4 rod TDR probes from 75-125 cm depth, 4 rod TDR probes from 175-225 cm depth, 4 rod TDR probes from 275-325 cm depth, 4 rod TDR probes from 375-425 cm depth.


Lysimeters (60-210 cm depth) (in database)

  • Lysimeters including TDR-system with 36 probes, 9 one-meter long probes in each lysimeter, (automatic)
  • Campbell datalogger
  • TDR-well with 4 tipping buckets (manual download of data), internet connection, power, light, and electrical heating.


Hydrogeophysics (not in database)

1. Water content

  • Cross-borehole ground penetrating radar, 4 x 6m PVC tubes (manual)
  • Access tubes for neutron logging. 2 m and 6 m.


2. Bulk resistivity

  • Cross-borehole electrical resistance tomography, 5 x 6m PVC tubes with 24 electrodes placed every 25cm. (manual). 12 "surface" electrodes at 25 cm depth.


3. Temperature profiles

  • Well equipped with logging system.


4. Decagon sensors

  • 17 (5TE) sensors (max depth 3 m).
  • 6 (MPS-1) sensors (max depth 3 m)


5. Soil Water Sampling

  • 6 suction cups at 1m, 2m, 2.40m, 3.40m, 4.5m, 5.5m. + collecting bottles in 1 thermobox.


6. Self-potential measurements (In collaboration with the University of Lausanne.)

  • 15 (SDEC) Unpolarizable electrodes (max. depth 3 m).


Water table (not in database)

  • Three wells equipped with pressure transducers. Three operational.
  • Deep well. 36 meters deep. For taking water samples in the following depths: 5-7 m, 7-9 m, 9-11 m, 13-15 m, and 33-35 m.


Soil parameters (not in database)
Retention characteristics: 6 depth intervals down to 205 cm, 5 replicates in each layer; lab analysis completed. Soil hydraulic conductivity: 3 depth intervals down to 80 cm, 5 soil cylinders per layer, lab analysis has been completed.


Remote Sensing sensors (not in database)

1. Surface temperature and heat fluxes

  • 2 thermal sensors (Everest Enviro-Therm 4000L) observing the same spot on the ground at two different elevation angles (55 deg. off nadir and 21 deg. off nadir).


2. NDVI and crop phenology

  • 2 Skye SKR 1800 sensors for measuring red and near-infrared radiance of the same spot on the ground at two different elevation angles (55 deg. off nadir and 21 deg. off nadir).
  • 1 Skye SKR 1800 sensor measuring the incoming red and near-infrared irradiance.



Other installations

  • Electrical fence
  • Container with power and lighting.
  • PFI-relay (less sensitive)
  • 3G internet connection
  • Datalogger (Campbell 3000)
  • Datalogger (Campbell 1000)
  • Datalogger (Campbell 1000). Installed in the lysimeter well.
  • Datalogger (Campbell 1000). Installed near cross-boreholes.
  • 2 server PCs
  • Harddisks, (4) 2TB
  • Wireless internet
  • Equipment shelter
  • Remote control of power.
  • 2 video cameras on the mast.


Pending installations

  • Acoustic snow depth monitor. (50% chance of installation)


Previous installations:

Soil water sampling (not in database)

  • 6 suction cups + collecting bottles in 1 thermobox. ‘Well’ for housing the thermoboxes.
  • 4 suction cups at 1m depth, 6 suction cups at 2 m depth, 4 suction cups at 3 m depth, 4 suction cups at 4 m depth.  The sampled solution is collected in plastic bottles stored in thermoboxes on a well below ground.

Suction

  • Decagon MPS1 tension sensors: 3 at 10 cm depth, 3 at 20 cm depth, 3 at 30 cm depth, 3 at 40 cm depth, 3 at 50 cm depth, 2 at 75 cm depth, 4 at 1 m depth.



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